Why Is A Good Crypto Tax Preparer So Hard To Find?

Find out why you can blame Congress for needing an excellent crypto tax preparer and what the cost might be for not having one.

Have you found the road to find a good crypto tax preparer, a long and windy one?  

Maybe you’ve got a ton of crypto and your current tax preparer hasn’t been keeping up with your needs.

And maybe the few tax preparers that have had some answers seemingly charge well above and beyond the others. Why is that?

You aren’t alone in your line of thought.

In an interview with Charlie Shrem on his podcast, Untold Stories in February 2020, Shrem asked a powerful, pointed question: Why are good crypto tax preparers so hard to find?  

I’ll tell you why. 

  • A good crypto tax return involves not just general tax preparation skills; you have to have accounting skills to do the reconciliation of all the trades. 
  • A good crypto tax preparer also needs to have legal skills because the anti-money laundering forms are very much law-oriented. 

When we do a tax return at Donnelly Tax Law, we call it a bulletproof crypto tax return. 

  • Not only do we report all the income, but we also report all the anti-money laundering forms.
  • We report any Ponzi scams or financial scams where you lost money because you can itemize the loss and reduce your taxes. 
  • If you have ICOs and dead coins and junk coins that went nothing, we can declare a loss on those and bring in some savings.

For most clients who come to me, we have to go back and fix a couple of years’ worth of returns. So we do a tax amnesty form.

Because if you report the anti-money laundering forms after the deadline, which is the same day as taxes are due, it’s a $10,000 penalty. 

It’s a $10,000 penalty on the FBAR and the Form 8938, and for each year, that’s $40,000 with a penalty. We can avoid it with tax amnesty, so it’s a law thing.  

In the current state of crypto taxation, you need a crypto tax law firm, or you are falling short in one way or another. 

Read More: Not Filing Anti-Money Laundering Forms Could Cost You $10,000 or More

Crypto Penalties Can Be High If You Don't Have A Good Crypto Tax Preparer

crypto tax preparer

In that same podcast interview on Untold Stories with Charlie Shrem, he made another bold observation.

Shrem stated,  “Penalties are high too. I know traders who honestly went back and paid tens of thousands of dollars in penalties just because they messed up how they reported it or the number was not correct or whatever. 

So penalties are a real thing; it’s not a few hundred bucks. It’s like a significant amount of money.” 

And he was correct.  

The IRS will audit crypto traders, and when they do, it’s primarily going to be because of violations of the anti-money laundering regulations. It’s not going to be because you didn’t add up 15,000 trades correctly.

Shrem then asked, What are the top three regulations you think the IRS will go after?

Why Does Nearly Every Crypto Trader Have A Schedule B Problem Without A Good Crypto Tax Preparer?

crypto tax preparer

I would say virtually every crypto trader has what I call a schedule B problem with

  1. a financial interest in or signature or other authority over at least one financial account located outside the United States if
  2. the aggregate value of those foreign financial accounts exceeded $10,000 at any time during the calendar year reported.

Schedule B on your tax return is the one where you list your interest and your dividend income. And at the very bottom, it has this question in part three which says: 

“Did you have a financial interest in or signature authority over a financial account in a foreign country?” “Yes” or “No”. 

Now, of course, Binance in Malta or whatever country it’s in, that’s a financial account in a foreign country; it would be hard to say it wasn’t. 

So most people said “No” to that question.   

Almost everybody says “No” to that question because US tax preparers never deal with people who have foreign assets. 

After all, the US is so big. Everybody has all their bank accounts in the US, so everybody checks “No” or leaves it “Blank”. 

Read More: How are Cryptos Reported on Anti-Money Laundering Forms?

Are Crypto Traders Required To File The FBAR Form?

crypto tax preparer

The next question after that is, “Are crypto traders required to file the FBAR form?” 

Shrem commented that opening an overseas bank account is something he avoids for this specific reason. He says he doesn’t need one and doesn’t want to deal with more compliance.

I told Shrem to open up his tax return, look for schedule B, look at the bottom, and see if he answered “Yes” or “No” to those questions. 

And I challenge you to do the same.  

Everyone should look at their past tax returns and look at schedule B at the bottom; it says, Did you “Yes” or “No” have a foreign financial account? 

And then, the next question is, if you answer “Yes,” Are you required to file a FinCEN form 114 FBAR? Please see the instructions in the form, “Yes” or “No?” 

Now, this has gone to the US Supreme Court, and the US Supreme Court has said that that question, as worded, has been in there for around 15 years, and it is sufficiently instructive that every taxpayer is under obligation to file an FBAR report. 

People cannot use the excuse, “I didn’t know”. “I didn’t have to.”

The fact of the matter is we can get away with tax amnesty on that argument, but if they take you to court, they can nail you against the wall.

This question is how crypto traders will get taken down because they’re all going to say “No” to that, and this is very black and white

There’s no “Well, I don’t have all the transaction records,” and there are no excuses or a song and dance. It’s black and white. 

You said, “No,” or you left that “Blank” when you should have said, “Yes,”. You’re nailed; there’s no further discussion.

Plus, since that part is a Title 18, the Bank Secrecy Act, they can go immediately to prosecution for perjury for not answering yes. 

When you sign your tax return, it says, “Under penalty of perjury, I affirmed that I have read my tax return, and I agree that it is true, complete and correct”. 

And then you’ll sign your name. That’s what happens when you sign a tax return, which means that’s perjury.

This Question Is A Schedule B Problem For Crypto Traders, So How Do You Fix That?

crypto tax preparer

We do the tax amnesty; we file the FBAR form and Form 8938. And Form 8938 is where you define foreign assets.

How Does The US Government Define Foreign Assets?

The internal revenue code section 6038D says, “A foreign asset is any financial instrument or contract for investment purposes where the counterparty is not a US Person”. 

Hey, look, the beauty of an exchange, even a US exchange like Coinbase, is you don’t have to know who you’re trading with. You may very well have been trading with terrorists from Syria; you have no idea even on Coinbase.

Why Is Tax Law So Complicated?

crypto tax preparer

Shrem had a question, and he wanted to preface it with a little analogy. 

“If I own a large farm and have multiple farmers leasing my farm, and the deal is that they have to pay me a percentage of their revenue based on how many clouds are in the sky. If it’s a non-sunny day, then their share of what they have to pay me is less. 

Let’s say it would be in my best interest, and I would be super highly incentivized to build a system to make it as easy and simple and without any loopholes or without any complications for those farmers to report that.

Now, did you ever think at some point in the last 10 or 20 years, the IRS would say hey, maybe the reason that people don’t like us is that we’re so complicated to interface with?

Maybe people don’t like us because no one likes paying taxes, but it’s something that you’re born knowing that you have to do. 

So why not make it simpler right? 

Now I’m not talking about tax law; I’m talking about filing your taxes.  

And then you have this behemoth like TurboTax; it is the only one, and then even there, it kind of sucks. Why hasn’t this been done better? Why hasn’t this been simplified?”

We Can't Blame The IRS For Needing A Good Crypto Tax Preparer; Blame Congress!

crypto tax preparer

The truth is we can’t blame the IRS for this; the blame is on Congress. Congress writes the laws; Congress makes everything complicated; it works this way. 

You want to have a sensitive tax system that is understanding to people. So if we could say, we had a flat tax. You just described the simplicity of a flat tax, right?

How much money you make, multiply it by 20% and give it to us—flat tax. 

And we have that in place right now. It’s called the alternative minimum tax. 

But what Congress says is yes, but lower-income people shouldn’t have to pay so much, so let’s have some deductions and incentives, and oh, let’s give them a child tax credit for how many children they have and people with more children need more credit.

Oh yeah, and if you make over a lot of money, maybe you should be paying a bit extra, and we put that in there.

And you listened to every single one of these explanations, and they all sound great, they all sound compassionate and meaningful. But the complexity layered on top of one another and then jiggling them every year twists them a bit and it becomes inconceivable. You cannot understand what’s going on. It becomes too complex. 

People come to me and say, “Can you estimate how much I owe in taxes?” I have no idea; I could never estimate it. I mean, the tax law is just so complicated in different ways; everybody has a different situation. 

So it’s Congress’ fault that you need an excellent crypto tax preparer.

Read More: What Clients Are Saying About Donnelly Tax Law

Watch The Video

Watch the full video interview with Charlie Shrem, Untold Stories on YouTube.

Crypto Tax Amnesty

Schedule a call with Donnelly Tax Law today to find out how Crypto Tax Amnesty can save you from not having had a good crypto tax preparer in the past.

4 Ways Marriage Affects A Newly-Wed Crypto Trader’s Tax Situation

Learn how marriage can affect your tax situation as a newly-wed crypto trader and what you need to do first.

You’ve had a good run being a single crypto trader, but the day has come that you’ve happily entered new waters as a newly-wed crypto trader.

You’ve met the person of your dreams, and life has changed in more ways than just one.

The last thing on your mind has likely been how your new marriage affects your crypto tax situation.

Here Are 4 Ways Marriage Affects A Newly-Wed Crypto Trader’s Tax Situation And What You Need To Do:

1) Avoid delays on your tax refund resulting from your new name and address changes.

newly-wed crypto trader

Your new name (or partner’s new name) through marriage must be reported to the social security administration to avoid delays on your tax refund. The name on your tax return must match your social security card; if these do not match up, it could cause delays in your tax return.  

You can update your married name by filing Form SS-5, called Application for a Social Security Card. You can find this form on SSA.gov or by calling 1-800-772-1213.  

If you have a new home address after your wedding day, you must also update your IRS records with Form 8822, called Change of Address on IRS.gov, and be sure to forward your mail through your local United States Post Office by visiting the change of address link at USPS.com.

2) Make sure you are in the correct tax bracket as a newly-wed crypto trader.

newly-wed crypto trader

If you and your spouse both work, then you may move into a higher tax bracket. You may also be affected by additional medicare tax. You can find out more information by using the Tax Withholding Estimator at IRS.gov or reading more on publication 505.  

Newly married couples must also complete a new Form W-4, called Earning Withholding Certificate for their employers at IRS.gov within 10 days of marriage.

3) Maximize your filing status with your newly-wed crypto trader status.

Filing jointly as a married couple could prove to be more beneficial than filing separately. Now is the time to figure out which way will suit you best and make the appropriate changes. The law says if a couple is married by December 31st, then they are considered a married couple for the entire year for tax purposes.

4) Stay clear of sneaky tax scams as a newly-wed crypto trader.

crypto tax returns

It’s important to note that the IRS will never email, phone calls, social media, or text messages. If you receive an alert in this capacity, you should beware it could be a scam. The best avenue for checking for updates if you are concerned about your tax account is logging directly into IRS.gov to see if you owe any money.

Need Crypto Tax Help?

For any questions or problems about your crypto tax return or schedule an appointment, go to DonnellyTaxLaw.com.

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Temporary IRS Tax Debt Relief For US Taxpayers With A Balance Due

Learn how US taxpayers have had a temporary pass on their outstanding IRS tax debt since the end of August.

Relief from your IRS tax debt is on the way, but for an unknown period.  

If you owe the IRS, then you’ll want to shout this IRS tax debt relief from the rooftops.  

In a time when the IRS has ramped up resources in every which way but loose to hone in on owners of virtual currency, they have temporarily loosened up on those taxpayers who need some IRS tax debt relief.

If you are a taxpayer who currently has an outstanding balance with the IRS, you can take a deep breath.

Why do US taxpayers currently have some IRS tax debt relief?

On August 21, 2020, the IRS announced that they temporarily halted the mailing of three notifications typically sent out to taxpayers with balances due to reduce the backlog of unopened mail that mounted while most IRS operations were closed due to COVID-19.

How can I expect to receive this temporary IRS tax debt relief?

The announcement read like this:

“The IRS has temporarily suspended the mailing of three notices to taxpayers who have a balance due on their taxes. The suspended notices are (1) CP501; (2) CP503; and (3) CP504. However, the IRS has informed taxpayers and tax professionals that some of them might still receive these notices during the next few weeks due to the delivery of existing mailings. The IRS is working to stop these mailings at their processing centers.”

What are these three IRS tax debt notices all about?

IRS tax debt

They are a series of letters sent to taxpayers who have debt with the IRS.  

These letters are sent in sequential order with escalating threats for those who have failed to pay back what they owe to the IRS. 

The first letter sent is called a CP501 Notice. The taxpayer is informed that they have a balance due (money owed to the IRS) on one of their tax accounts.

If there is no action taken, a second letter is sent called a CP503 Notice. The taxpayer is informed that the IRS has not heard from them with a reminder that they still have an unpaid balance on their tax accounts.  

The third and most threatening notice is called the CP504 Notice. The taxpayer is once again told they have an amount due to their account. This time they are told if they do not pay the amount due immediately, the IRS will seize (levy) their state income tax refund and apply it to pay the amount still owed to the IRS.

Which tax debt relief letter am I happiest not to receive?

IRS tax debt

This third, most threatening letter is of particular interest. CP504 is the biggie. It is the threat of a levy in 30 days.

If you fall into this category and have been worried about having to take immediate action on your tax debt, you can breathe a temporary sigh of relief.  

While there has been no timeframe set for these three letters’ temporary suspension, I think this is an effort by the Dept of Treasury to stop the escalation of debt issues, especially since this is an election year.

Nonetheless, it is excellent news for the millions of taxpayers who have 2019 debt that they can’t pay because of the lousy economy.

What can I do if I have a question about IRS tax debt?

If you have a tax question, you can schedule a call on our Donnelly Tax Law website.   

If you are a crypto owner worried about getting a crypto tax audit, we have put together three exciting monthly memberships to put your mind at ease so you can sleep again.

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IRC Section 1031: Like-Kind Exchange Treatment Of Cryptocurrencies Explained

Crypto tax expert explores the controversial position of IRC section 1031 and the use of Like-Kind Exchange for crypto taxes.

Applying the like-kind exchange treatment is a controversial position in crypto taxation, where exchanging one cryptocurrency for another qualifies for tax-deferred treatment under IRC section 1031.

In my previous article, I explained how Donnelly Tax law is on the bleeding edge of like-kind exchange (LKE) with two open audits being reviewed by the IRS.  

I explained how like-kind exchange (LKE) could save crypto traders a lot of money on their crypto tax bill.  

Today, I will lay out the legal case for like-kind exchange (LKE) by exploring the controversial position that exchanging one cryptocurrency for another qualifies for tax-deferred treatment under IRC section 1031.

IRC Section 1031: Cryptocurrencies Are A Specific Class Of Property

IRC Section 1031

26 CFR 1.1031(a)-2 states the “nonrecognition rules of section 1031 do not apply to an exchange of one kind or class of property for property of a different kind or class.” The asset classification rules of 1.1031(a)-2(b) do not apply to cryptocurrencies because they are not tangible property. There are no classes for intangible property. (Footnote 1)  

Interestingly, IRS Notice 2014-21 classified all cryptocurrencies as “convertible virtual currencies,” a sub-class of virtual currencies which satisfies the requirement that exchanged property be of the same kind or class.

IRC Section 1031: Cryptocurrencies Differ Only In Grade Or Quality, Not Nature Or Character

In determining when a property is of like kind, “The words like kind have reference to the nature and character of the property and not to its grade or quality,” according to 26 CFR 1.1031(a)-1(b).

With regard to intangible property, the regulations state:

“Whether intangible personal property is of a like kind to other intangible personal property generally depends on the nature or character of the rights involved (e.g., a patent or a copyright) and also on the nature or character of the underlying property to which the intangible personal property relates.” (Footnote 2)

The nature and character of a cryptocurrency are that it is a digital store of value using bytecode recorded on a blockchain using a cryptographic method. Variations in bytecode instruction set or blockchain protocols are just matters of grade or quality. 

When the IRS determined that the exchange of an FCC license for a radio frequency  was a like-kind exchange for a television frequency, they stated:

 “Even the narrowest interpretation of the like kind standard does not require that one property be identical to another or that they be completely interchangeable. Thus, we find that the differences in the assigned frequencies are not differences in nature or character, but are merely differences in grade or quality.” (Footnote 3)

Five years later, A similar conclusion was given by the IRS regarding matters of grade or quality:

“We note that the bandwidth of a particular frequency dictates the amount of information that the frequency can carry. In comparing the nature or character of the assigned frequency of the electromagnetic spectrum referred to in each FCC license, it is clear that the spectrum rights transferred by the Taxpayer have different bandwidths from the spectrum rights received by the Taxpayer. However, even the narrowest interpretation of the like kind standard does not require that one property be identical to another or that they be completely interchangeable. As stated earlier, the spectrum rights being transferred by the Taxpayer to AA and the spectrum rights being received by the Taxpayer from AA are all suitable for use in the Taxpayer’s business of providing Services. Thus, we find that the bandwidth differences in the spectrum rights being transferred and being received in this exchange, which underlie these FCC licenses, are not differences in nature or character, but are merely differences in grade or quality, and thus constitute like-kind property.” (Footnote 4)

IRC Section 1031: Pre-TJCA Wording Of Section 1031

IRC Section 1031

The TCJA amended the wording of section 1031 primarily by limiting section 1031 to only apply to real property effective January 1, 2018. In Appendix 1, I have reconstructed the pre-TCJA wording of section 1031.

Cryptocurrencies Are Held For Investment Purposes

Cryptocurrencies reported were held for investment purposes, according to IRC 1031(a)(1). This is the primary motivation for owning cryptocurrencies.

Exception For Property Held For Sale Doesn’t Apply To Cryptocurrencies

IRC 1031(a)(2) does not prohibit like-kind exchange between cryptocurrencies because cryptocurrencies are not one of the listed exceptions. Clearly, cryptocurrencies are not forms of stock-in-trade, property held primarily for sale, stocks, bonds, notes, interests in partnerships, certificates of trust or beneficial interests, or choses in action.

Cryptocurrencies do not qualify as “other securities”. This IRS code section doesn’t provide or refer to  a definition of “other security”. The IRS has not issued any direct guidance regarding the issue of whether cryptocurrency is a security. 

The Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued a 2017 report on cryptocurrencies. The SEC uses a four-prong test, known as the Howey test, to determine if a property is a security: “A [security] is [1] an investment of money [2] in a common enterprise [3] with a reasonable expectation of profits [4] to be derived from the entrepreneurial or managerial efforts of others.” (Footnote 5) The advancement of cryptocurrencies are not related to the ongoing entrepreneurial or managerial efforts of other persons, but rather to consensus algorithms.

IRC Section 1031: Procedural Requirements For Completing Section 1031 Exchanges

IRC Section 1031
  1. IRC 1031(a)(3) requires that property to be exchange be identified and the exchange happen within certain time limits.  Exchanges on cryptocurrency exchanges are instantaneous. The property given up and the property received are clearly identified at the time of the exchange.

  2. IRC 1031(b) and (c) don’t apply on cryptocurrency exchanges because only cryptocurrencies are exchanged and no other property.

  3. IRC 1031(f)  regarding related persons is not applicable because on cryptocurrency exchanges, the parties are anonymous to each other because they are matched up by an exchange. After the transaction, both parties remain anonymous. The possibility that a transfer would occur between related parties would be coincidental, unintentional, and unknown to the parties.

Receipt Of Other Property

The nature of online exchange of cryptocurrency is that they match buyers and sellers for exchanging assets without any other property as described in 1.1031(b)-1.

IRC Section 1031: Summary

The exchange of cryptocurrencies for other cryptocurrencies are like kind exchanges under IRC 1031 as supported by IRS Technical Advice Memorandums.

There are additional court cases that can be added to the evidence in favor, but this short article lays out the key issues.

Stay tuned for the next article where I will discuss why the old law is still relevant.

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  1. 26 CFR 1.1031(a)-2(c)(1)
  2. 26 CFR 1.1031(a)-2(c)(1)
  3. IRS Letter Ruling 200035005, May 11, 2000.
  4. IRS Letter Ruling 200532008, May 9, 2005.
  5. See SEC v Edwards, 540 U.S.389, 393 (2004); SEC v W J Howey Co., 328 US 293, 301 (1946); United Housing Found, Inc v Forman 421 US 837, 852-53(1975)

Appendix 1: Pre-TCJA Wording of 26 USC 1031

26 U.S. Code § 1031.Exchange of property held for productive use or investment

(a)Nonrecognition of gain or loss from exchanges solely in kind

(1)In general

No gain or loss shall be recognized on the exchange of property held for productive use in a trade or business or for investment if such property is exchanged solely for property of like kind which is to be held either for productive use in a trade or business or for investment.

(2)Exception for property held for sale

This subsection shall not apply to any exchange of—

 (A) stock in trade or other property held primarily for sale,

 (B) stocks, bonds, or notes,

 (C) other securities or evidences of indebtedness or interest,

 (D) interests in a partnership,

 (E) certificates of trust or beneficial interests, or

 (F) choses in action.

For purposes of this section, an interest in a partnership which has in effect a valid election under section 761(a) to be excluded from the application of all of subchapter K shall be treated as an interest in each of the assets of such partnership and not as an interest in a partnership.


(3)Requirement that property be identified and that exchange be completed not more than 180 days after transfer of exchanged property

For purposes of this subsection, any property received by the Taxpayer shall be treated as property which is not like-kind property if—


such property is not identified as property to be received in the exchange on or before the day which is 45 days after the date on which the Taxpayer transfers the property relinquished in the exchange, or

(B)such property is received after the earlier of—


the day which is 180 days after the date on which the Taxpayer transfers the property relinquished in the exchange, or


the due date (determined with regard to extension) for the transferor’s return of the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year in which the transfer of the relinquished property occurs.

(b)Gain from exchanges not solely in kind

If an exchange would be within the provisions of subsection (a), of section 1035(a), of section 1036(a), or of section 1037(a), if it were not for the fact that the property received in exchange consists not only of property permitted by such provisions to be received without the recognition of gain, but also of other property or money, then the gain, if any, to the recipient shall be recognized, but in an amount not in excess of the sum of such money and the fair market value of such other property.

(c)Loss from exchanges not solely in kind

If an exchange would be within the provisions of subsection (a), of section 1035(a), of section 1036(a), or of section 1037(a), if it were not for the fact that the property received in exchange consists not only of property permitted by such provisions to be received without the recognition of gain or loss, but also of other property or money, then no loss from the exchange shall be recognized.


If property was acquired on an exchange described in this section, section 1035(a), section 1036(a), or section 1037(a), then the basis shall be the same as that of the property exchanged, decreased in the amount of any money received by the Taxpayer and increased in the amount of gain or decreased in the amount of loss to the Taxpayer that was recognized on such exchange. If the property so acquired consisted in part of the type of property permitted by this section, section 1035(a), section 1036(a), or section 1037(a), to be received without the recognition of gain or loss, and in part of other property, the basis provided in this subsection shall be allocated between the properties (other than money) received, and for the purpose of the allocation there shall be assigned to such other property an amount equivalent to its fair market value at the date of the exchange. For purposes of this section, section 1035(a), and section 1036(a), where as part of the consideration to the Taxpayer another party to the exchange assumed (as determined under section 357(d)) a liability of the Taxpayer, such assumption shall be considered as money received by the Taxpayer on the exchange.

(e)Application to certain partnerships

For purposes of this section, livestock of different sexes are not property of a like kind. 

(f)Special rules for exchanges between related persons

(1)In general



a taxpayer exchanges property with a related person,


there is nonrecognition of gain or loss to the Taxpayer under this section with respect to the exchange of such property (determined without regard to this subsection), and

(C)before the date 2 years after the date of the last transfer which was part of such exchange—


the related person disposes of such property, or


the Taxpayer disposes of the property received in the exchange from the related person which was of like kind to the property transferred by the Taxpayer,

there shall be no nonrecognition of gain or loss under this section to the Taxpayer with respect to such exchange; except that any gain or loss recognized by the Taxpayer by reason of this subsection shall be taken into account as of the date on which the disposition referred to in subparagraph (C) occurs.

(2)Certain dispositions not taken into accountFor purposes of paragraph (1)(C), there shall not be taken into account any disposition


after the earlier of the death of the Taxpayer or the death of the related person,


in a compulsory or involuntary conversion (within the meaning of section 1033) if the exchange occurred before the threat or imminence of such conversion, or


with respect to which it is established to the satisfaction of the Secretary that neither the exchange nor such disposition had as one of its principal purposes the avoidance of Federal income tax.

(3)Related person

For purposes of this subsection, the term “related person” means any person bearing a relationship to the Taxpayer described in section 267(b) or 707(b)(1).

(4)Treatment of certain transactions

This section shall not apply to any exchange which is part of a transaction (or series of transactions) structured to avoid the purposes of this subsection.

(g)Special rule where substantial diminution of risk

(1)In general

If paragraph (2) applies to any property for any period, the running of the period set forth in subsection (f)(1)(C) with respect to such property shall be suspended during such period.

(2)Property to which subsection applies

This paragraph shall apply to any property for any period during which the holder’s risk of loss with respect to the property is substantially diminished by—


the holding of a put with respect to such property,


the holding by another person of a right to acquire such property, or


a short sale or any other transaction.

(h)Special rules for foreign real and personal property

Real property located in the United States and real property located outside the United States are not property of a like kind.


For purposes of subsection (a)(2)(B), the term ‘stocks’ shall not include shares in a mutual ditch, reservoir, or irrigation company if at the time of the exchange—


  1. the mutual ditch, reservoir, or irrigation company is an organization described in 
  2. section 501(c)(12)(A) (determined without regard to the percentage of its income that is collected from its members for the purpose of meeting losses and expenses), and


(2) the shares in such company have been recognized by the highest court of the State in which such company was organized or by applicable State statute as constituting or representing real property or an interest in real property.”

Crypto Tax Expert: Like-kind Exchange (LKE) Is Highly Effective And Equally Controversial

Find out how Donnelly Tax Law is on the bleeding edge of like-kind exchange (LKE) and how it saves crypto traders big money.

Like-kind exchange is a topic fueled with such controversy that many tax professionals  disagree on it.

In an article published on Cointracker, on November 15, 2019, Christopher Wrobel (Special Counsel to the Associate Chief Counsel, IRS) walked back Suzanne Sinno’s (General Attorney, IRS’s Office of Chief Counsel) comments from two days earlier at the AICPA National tax conference in Washington, DC.

Wrobel stated, “that while like-kind exchanges are disallowed for cryptocurrency starting in 2018, for pre-2018 transactions, they are still a grey area that will be decided on a case-by-case basis.

This controversial topic has IRS lawyers in such a twist that they’re publicly editing one another.

IRS special counsel, Wrobel, says like-kind exchange is held on a case-by-case basis, and I currently have two crypto tax audit cases heading into review with the IRS special counsel. 

We have written the legal briefs in the IRS’s hands right now with a reasonably compelling argument for like-kind exchange.  

That puts Donnelly Tax Law on this controversial topic’s bleeding edge with two open audit cases containing significant arguments for like-kind exchange. 

Like-kind exchange is no small tax savings strategy for crypto traders.  

My firm, Donnelly Tax Law, has helped taxpayers owning cryptocurrencies to avoid taxes on over $40 million in gains by using Like-Kind Exchange calculations.

This article will explain how like-kind exchange works and how it saves big money on your crypto taxes.

What is like-kind exchange (LKE)?

like-kind exchange (LKE)

Like-kind exchange (LKE) is the way most crypto traders agree cryptos should be taxed. You only are taxed when you convert back to cash. The U.S. tax law permitted this type of trading under section 1031, frequently called “like-kind exchange” (LKE).

An easy way to think of this is that the second property inherits the original property’s purchase price (basis) and purchase date during an exchange.

How does like-kind exchange (LKE) defer the gain until profits are taken?

Section 1031 allows the deferring of gain when exchange property.

For example, say you buy $2000 of BTC. When the value reaches $3000, you exchange the BTC for XRP. The gain of $1000 is considered deferred.  The cost basis of XRP is the same as BTC or $2000. If XRP is later sold for $5000 in fiat USD, the gain would be $3000 because the cost basis is $2000, not $3000.

Like-kind exchange (LKE) treatment does not make the gain tax-free.  The gain is deferred. It is eventually taxed as sold for fiat.

Deferring gain is important, especially when prices drop. Consider our example above. The price of our XRP holdings had collapsed to $2500. The gain when going to fiat would be only $500. The taxpayer is saved from having to pay tax on earlier gains, which later evaporated.

How do like-kind exchange (LKE) trades qualify quicker for long-term rates?

like-kind exchange (LKE)

Since the second property inherits the first property’s purchase date, it qualifies for long term capital gain tax rates sooner when converting to fiat. Once a property is held for over a year, it qualifies for long term capital gains taxes, usually 15%. (Footnote 1)

How does like-kind exchange (LKE) reduce penalties and interest?

Here is where like-kind exchange (LKE) gets exciting for crypto traders.

Tax returns for 2014 to 2017 can be amended to report the like-kind exchanges without incurring an additional tax liability. This technique removes the audit risk of unreported crypto trades. There are no penalties or interest risk for reporting like-kind exchange (LKE) trades because there are no additional taxes owed.

The IRS charges an accuracy penalty and interest when it discovers unreported gains. Many customers come to me with unreported gains, especially for the 2017 tax year.

Would like-kind exchange (LKE) help me?

like-kind exchange (LKE)

Like-kind exchange (LKE) is recommend for traders who need to report crypto-to-crypto trades before 2018. (Footnote 2)

Traders who would not benefit from like-kind exchange like-kind exchange (LKE):

One trader claimed he did crypto-to-crypto trades but turned out he always went back to cash before buying the next crypto. 

One trader had huge crypto-to-crypto trade gains, but on December 28, 2017, he panicked and sold everything for cash. A day later, he reinvested all the cash back into cryptos.  By cashing out, he had to recognize all the capital gains.

Why like-kind exchange (LKE) is the best way to report 2017 gains?

Consider this scenario: An investor buys 10 BTC on 1/1/2017 for $9600. On 12/21/2017, he exchanges the 10 BTC for 535 LTC at a fair market value of about $162,000. LTC price declines until he relents and sells all the LTC on 12/30/2018 for $17,000. Assume that the investor was in the 33% tax bracket in 2017 and the 32% tax bracket in 2018. Long term capital gains rate is 15%.

If the investor were to report each trade as capital gain, what is the tax impact?

Capital Gain Scenario: The investor pays $50,160 in taxes in 2017. But the gain of $152,000 is illusionary. In 2018, the market collapsed, resulting in a $145,000 loss.  BUT, there is a $3000 limit on claiming a capital loss, so the capital loss carryover to 2019 is $142,000. The net tax burden over the two years for this transaction is $49,160.

like-kind exchange (LKE)

Like-Kind Exchange Scenario: Under like-kind exchange, the investor pays no tax on the trade in 2017. The LTC inherits the original purchase price and purchase date of the BTC when treated as a like-kind exchange. This is shown in red down below. Although prices dropped in 2018, the selling price is still higher than the original price of the BTC, so there is a small gain. Since the holding period is extended because of like-kind exchange (LKE), the sale is taxed at lower long term gain rates. The net tax burden over the two years for this transaction is $1,110 or a savings of $48,050.

like-kind exchange (LKE)

Amending Returns to add LKE: If this investor hadn’t reported his gains in 2017, amending his 2017 and 2018 returns results in a smaller tax using like-kind exchange (LKE). Also avoided are the substantial late payment penalty and interest on taxes.

Will using like-kind exchange (LKE) attract an audit?

Original filing of a like-kind exchange (LKE) return has never generated an audit for my clients.

Can a return be amended to use like-kind exchange (LKE)?

like-kind exchange (LKE)

I have filed dozens of like-kind exchange (LKE) returns without audit. The only time I have difficulty is when a large refund is claimed on an amended return. This gets an extra review, but you should still get it if you are entitled to a refund.

One client was selected for audit, but this was related to unreported K-1 income.

Is using like-kind exchange (LKE) legal?

In December 2017, Congress passed the TCJA tax law, which modified Section 1031, limiting like-kind exchange (LKE) to only real estate.  Over the prior decade, section 1031 was used for more purpose to defer gain. There was a debate; it was time to limit the application of 1031.  It was not because of cryptocurrencies alone that it was changed.

The law only applies to tax years 2018 and forward.  The law doesn’t apply to prior years. The law change has no implications for the legality of non-real estate like-kind exchange (LKE) trades in prior years.

If you are looking for some formal IRS document that says like-kind exchange (LKE) is permitted for cryptocurrency trades, it doesn’t exist. It will never exist.  The IRS tries to educate taxpayers on what the tax law and regulations specifically say.  They leave the application up to you.

Stay Tuned

Stay tuned, or subscribe to my newsletter, for my next post where I lay out the legal case for like-kind exchange (LKE) by exploring the controversial position that exchanging one cryptocurrency for another qualifies for tax-deferred treatment under IRC section 1031.

For the most professional, worry-free way to have your crypto taxes prepared and filed, click here.

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Footnote 1: 20% if you are in the top tax bracket.

Footnote 2: At the end of 2017, Congress changed Section 1031 to only apply to real estate

Crypto Tax Expert Details IRS Cryptocurrency Timeline

The IRS cryptocurrency timeline detailed from 2013 to the present day by Crypto Tax Expert, Clinton Donnelly of Donnelly Tax Law.

Note: Not all actions, advice, guidance, provided by the IRS are non-binding legally on the taxpayer.

The Beginning Of The IRS Cryptocurrency Timeline

2013 – 2015
The IRS served a “John Doe” summons on Coinbase seeking information from accounts “with at least the equivalent of $20,000 in any one transaction type (buy, sell, send, or receive) in any one year during the 2013-2015 period.

April 2014
The IRS releases Notice 2014-21, a.k.a. Virtual Currency Guidance accompanied by several FAQs with references to several publications: “Taxable and Nontaxable Income,” “Basis of Assets,” “Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Entities” and more. 

December 12, 2014
Treasury Decision TD-9706 solicits comments on the proper reporting of virtual currency on as Specified Foreign Financial Assets on form 8938.

May 6, 2016
IRS & FBI announce legal victory of imprisonment for 20 years of founder of Liberty Reserve for money laundering. Liberty Reserve was a non-blockchain virtual currency.

November 8, 2016
The Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration (TIGTA) warned IRS that better guidance needed on reporting tax implications of virtual currency transactions.

FAQs Are Non-Binding To The Taxpayer On IRS Cryptocurrency Timeline

IRS cryptocurrency timeline

July 26, 2017
IRS Taxpayer Advocate calls IRS FAQs a trap for the unwary.  FAQs are non-binding.

March 2018
The IRS reminded taxpayers that income from virtual currency transactions is reportable on their income tax returns. Wrongfully reported income tax could be seen as tax evasion and could include a fine of up to $250,000 or 3 years in prison.

July 2018
IRS announces through the Withholding & International Individual Compliance Area: “U.S. persons are subject to tax on worldwide income from all sources, including transactions involving virtual currency.”

July 13, 2020
IRS release press release about achievements of the J5. A five nation task force to coordinate investigation and enforcement efforts in tax evasion including the area of virtual currencies. The J5 have built the FCInet as a decentralized virtual computer network that enables agencies to compare, analyze and exchange data anonymously. It helps users to obtain the right information in real-time and enables agencies from different jurisdictions to work together while respecting each other’s local autonomy. Organizations can jointly connect information, without needing to surrender data or control to a central database. FCInet doesn’t collect data, rather it connects data.

IRS Begins Sending Virtual Currency Education Letters On IRS Cryptocurrency Timeline

IRS cryptocurrency timeline

July 2019
The IRS started sending the educational letters (6173, 6174, 6174-A) to taxpayers last week of July 2019. By the end of August, more than 10,000 taxpayers received these letters. Taxpayers’ names were obtained through various ongoing IRS compliance efforts.

October 9, 2019
The IRS releases Revenue Ruling 2019-24, providing further guidance on Airdrops and Hardforks. 

October 9, 2019
The IRS publishes a list of frequently asked questions about virtual currencies. This document was revised again a few months later.

January 2020
The IRS adds the Crypto Question to Form 1040 for 2019: At any time during 2019, did you receive, sell, send, exchange, or otherwise acquire any financial interest in any virtual currency.

February 2, 2020
IRS & FBI announce Ohio resident charged with operating darknet-based bitcoin “mixer,” which laundered over $300 million.

February 2020
The U.S. Government Accounting Office (GAO) published a report GAO-20-188 stating the IRS guidance in 2014 & 2019 was not clear as to which parts are authoritative and which parts were subject to change. IRS and the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) have not clearly and publicly explained when, if at all, requirements for reporting financial assets held in foreign countries apply to virtual currencies (Forms 8938 and FBAR).

March 2, 2020
IRS & FBI charged two Chinese nationals with laundering over $100 million in cryptocurrency from exchange hack.

March 2020
The IRS has invited crypto companies to discuss how they “balance taxpayer service with regulatory enforcement,” consisting of panels on technology updates, tax return preparation, and more.

May 2020
IRS wants crypto tax software companies to help with crypto tax audits

July 2020
IRS seeks contractors to uncover privacy coin transactions

July 22, 2020
IRS Criminal Investigation wins case. Man admits operating unlicensed ATM Network that laundered millions of dollars of Bitcoin and cash for criminals’ benefit

August 4, 2020
IRS and DEA announce American darknet vendor and Costa Rican pharmacist charged with narcotics and money laundering using virtual currency.

Crypto Tax Reporting Becomes IRS Top Priority On IRS Cryptocurrency Timeline With The New 1040 For 2020

IRS cryptocurrency timeline

August 2020
IRS releases a draft for the new 1040 form moving the “Yes” or “No” virtual currency question which asks, “At any time during 2020, did you receive, sell, send, exchange, or otherwise acquire any financial interest in any virtual currency? Yes or No” from Schedule 1 to the top of the new 1040 form.  

August 14, 2020
IRS begins second round of virtual currency education letters dated August 14, 2020.  

August 28, 2020
IRS memo says that cryptocurrency earned from carrying out microtasks is taxable. In Chief Counsel Advice #202035011, the IRS outlined the government’s position on the taxability of convertible virtual currency received in exchange for microtasking through crowdsourcing or other similar platforms.

New Approach By The IRS To Use Rewards To Hack Crypto On IRS Cryptocurrency Timeline

IRS cryptocurrency timeline

September 4, 2020
The IRS offers reward of $625,000 to anyone who can “reliably produce useful results on a variety of real-world CI cryptocurrency investigations involving Monero and/or Lightning” reflecting a new approach by the IRS to use rewards to hack cryptocurrency, a field dominated by hackers.  Proposals are due Wednesday, September 16, 2020, at 08:00 EDT. 

September  8, 2020
The IRS’s criminal investigation department signed a $249,900 contract with blockchain analytics firm called Blockchain Analytics and Tax Software, LLC, to amplify crypto tracing tools.

September 30, 2020
The IRS awards a contract labeled “Pilot IRS Request for Proposal Cryptocurrency Tracing” for $625,000 to Chainalysis, Inc. to develop a tool that will crack privacy coins like Monero and/or Lightning.

October 2020
Per the  draft for the new 1040 Form instructions, anyone who sold cryptocurrencies, received airdrops, exchanged cryptocurrencies for goods, services, and other assets must report “yes” to the question: 

“At any time during 2020, did you receive, sell, send, exchange, or otherwise acquire any financial interest in any virtual currency?”

The IRS latest update states that a transaction involving virtual currency includes:

  • The receipt or transfer of virtual currency for free, including from an airdrop or hard fork;
  • An exchange of virtual currency for goods or services;
  • A sale of virtual currency; and
  • An exchange of virtual currency for other property, including for another virtual currency.

The IRS also states users who held crypto in their wallets or transferred cryptocurrencies between their own wallets are not liable. 

The draft instructions on Form 1040 are likely to be considered final unless unexpected issues require further changes.

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International Crypto Tax Competition – Stephan Livera Podcast: Part Four

Learn from tax experts about international crypto tax competition and determine if making a move is worthwhile.

Dennis Wohlfarth of Accointing and Clinton Donnelly of Donnelly Tax Law join Stephan Livera to talk about Bitcoin tax recordkeeping, and strategies to minimize tax. In the full podcast, we chat about:

  • Current Bitcoin tax treatment
  • Capital gains Bitcoin tax treatment
  • Bitcoin tax recordkeeping
  • Bitcoin tax strategies locally
  • Bitcoin tax strategies for those willing to go overseas
  • International crypto tax competition

In part one, we talked about Bitcoin tax treatment and Austrian economics on Stephan Livera Podcast, episode 183, and our guests were from the company Accointing and Donnelly Tax Law

In part two, we talked about Bitcoin tax recordkeeping.

In part three, we talked about how various crypto tax situations should be treated locally and internationally from a crypto tax law perspective.  

Today, our podcast show notes are about international crypto tax competition and determining if moving is worthwhile.

International Crypto Tax Competition

international crypto tax

What are the ways that people could explore if moving is worthwhile?

Clinton Donnelly: Let’s take the situation with someone who’s not an American.  

I’d propose that the best place for your money is to invest in the United States. 

It is the largest tax Haven in the world because the financial industry is an essential part of the US economy, and they’ve created powerful incentives to attract foreign money. 

Notably, there are zero capital gains on your crypto assets in the US if you’re a foreigner.

If you go to Bank of America, Citibank, or Wells Fargo, or any of these major banks as a foreigner, you can easily open up a bank account. But you’ll have to go there physically and open one up. 

It’s not going to be a question as to why somebody from Australia or Switzerland is coming to the US to open up a bank account because the US wants to be the world’s marketplace.

Opening a bank is not going to be a problem, and you’ll want to do it with these major banks because they’re accustomed to international wire transfers. 

Suppose you have an account at a US bank. In that case, nobody will question it from an anti-money laundering perspective if you are trying to transfer money back to Australia. As you know, it’s widely respected as opposed to a BVI (British Virgin Islands) bank or credit card. 

The US does information sharing between countries regarding how much money citizens have in foreign bank accounts.  

The US has FATCA Law. 

All the world’s banks have to tell the US (the IRS) twice a year about American bank accounts in foreign countries. In response to that, the OACD countries created common reporting standards, CRS

I think about a hundred countries have signed up to where once a year, they will report back the total amount of each citizen’s bank account to their home country.

And the US didn’t sign that. The US did not sign the common reporting standards. 

What that means if you have a bank account in the US, the US doesn’t tell any other country about it. So, it’s kind of ironic. 

I guess maybe that’s like being the bully. 

The U.S. demands that everybody gives information to them, but they won’t share it with anyone else. This is because the US is the most prominent financial player out there. 

So they can have this, and whereas it is considered a bit of a tax haven or a low tax jurisdiction, but for everybody who’s not a United States citizen.  Thus making it a great place to put your money because it’s a rich investment area. 

You can move your money out of cryptos when you want to put it into some of the world’s safest banks and invest in some of the best real estate in the country and Wall Street. 

There’s a lot of affluent financial areas with powerful incentives. 

You’ve just got to use a US credit card, like a Bank of America credit card that you can use buying things all over the world for the rest of your life, and your local jurisdiction would have no visibility to it unless you disclosed it to them. So that’s a very attractive thing to do without having to change residents.

Stephan Livera: That could be one idea if you don’t even want to become a US citizen. All of that by just opening an account in the US.

Then there are the other options for moving or getting residents in BVI (British Virgin Islands) or multiple places. I presume that’s also an option that some of your clients might explore.  For some of them it might be worthwhile to consider that.

Clinton Donnelly: I do a lot of consulting in this area. For virtually every country, the principle of taxation is that you’re subject to taxation if you’re in the country for more than six months. 

Typically, you’re subject to taxation on your worldwide income in that jurisdiction where you’ve lived for six months. 

Now, the US has a different tax law. They tax their citizens on their worldwide income, regardless of where they live in the world. So it’s a little different wrinkle for Americans, but a common underlying theme in international taxation is that it is based on residency. 

Residency is typically defined six-months or approximately 183 or 185 days. It varies how you define it, but roughly the six-month thing. 

This creates a massive international tax loophole, which I would call a three-country shuffle, where if you’re never more than six months in one country in a given period, you can keep moving around. It’s kind of like the digital nomad strategy. 

You keep moving around, and you’re not going to have to report taxes to anyone. So, again that’s not for a US citizen. It is assuming you’re not a US citizen. 

Now US citizens have a different problem. US citizens are taxed under income worldwide. However, two massive tax breaks are given to US citizens:

One is, for every dollar they pay in taxes to a foreign country. They get about a dollar to dollar credit back on their tax bill, which is nice. 

The US taxes are lower than most other developed countries. I have clients living in Germany, and their German tax bill is higher than their US tax bill. We still do a US return. They take the German credit, and then they don’t owe anything back to the US. 

That’s if you’re an American citizen living in a low jurisdiction where you are still going to have to report back to the US, and you’ll probably end up paying taxes back to the US.

Now for American citizens, there is a fantastic loophole called Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico is a little country South of Florida next to Cuba, and this area is a possession of the United States. It’s not a state, although there’s always talk about statehood. It’s a possession now in the US tax law. 

Puerto Rico is treated as a possession, kind of like as though you’re living in a foreign country of all of US possessions, and they’ve negotiated the right to tax their citizens. 

If you’re a Puerto Rican citizen, all your income comes from being in Puerto Rico. You do not file a US tax return. Puerto Rico pays its share to the US government on your behalf. So this creates an interesting loophole. Puerto Rico is a Caribbean country, not a lot of indigenous resources. Earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes have crushed them.

I mean, the country is bankrupt. However, they created an incentive called act 60 formerly, act 22, where it’s a 0% tax on your capital gains. 

So if you’re an American whale and want to do this, you can move to Puerto Rico, which does mean actually moving there. 

It’s not like, visit for a day and then go back to California. No, you are moving to Puerto Rico for at least six months of the year, in which case, 0% tax on your capital gains on the Bitcoin that you sell when you’re in Puerto Rico. This is a fantastic thing. 

Now, there are some costs.  You have to make a $10,000 donation to Puerto Rican charities. There’s a $5,000 annual fee you pay. And you’ve got to buy a house or apartment in Puerto Rico, and you can’t rent it out. There are some serious out-of-pocket costs, but it’s probably worth it for that extra 15% savings. If you were a whale Bitcoin holder in the US, that’d be the movement for you.

Stephan Livera: Fantastic. So that’s a very nice breakdown there. 

So if you’re a non-US person, it might make sense for you to do this whole three different countries, different residencies, etc. But if you’re in the US potentially, one idea is moving to Puerto Rico. 

One other idea I was interested in discussing related to what we were just saying is what it takes to break your nexus with your home country. 

So, as I understand, it’s like you have to break that six months or 180 days aspect.  

Are there any other things there that people have to think about when breaking that connection so that they can access the lower tax rate?

Clinton Donnelly: Usually, getting a divorce helps. 

I’m just being silly. 

Usually, it is the “Let me go back to visit mother” and that sort of thing, you know.  There is a bit of travel to it. If you take that strategy, you’re at least saying I’m going to be outside. 

Depending on which country you’re from, staying outside that home country for, you know, 9 to 11 months of the year, at least to break the connection.

A couple of things to think about are think of the cost of living. 

You can think about creating awareness of other cultures for your family and speaking other languages. 

There are several websites where you plug in two cities, and they’ll tell you the comparative cost of living. 

And I will tell you, it’s the cost of living that changes a lot between different countries. I just think it’s a great thing to do is once you start traveling, you get the bug. 

What I find is I’ve worked with digital nomads as they travel a bit, and then they decided to have a home base, and they stay there, you know, five months a year, and then they move around or that sort of thing.

If you are not a US citizen, if you're willing to do a three-country shuffle, put your investments in US crypto exchanges, have crypto or at least in wallets, and then use US banks. You can move towards a pretty close to zero tax situation and see the world simultaneously.

Stephan Livera: That’s very impressive.

Exploring The Dynamic Between Different Countries Of The World And International Crypto Tax

Stephan Livera: I think another area that you were touching on as well, Clinton was just around the dynamic between the different countries of the world.

So as you said, it’s almost like there are specific pressures where some countries try to push reporting taxation levels onto others. 

But then there’s also this dynamic where you said that it’s almost like the richer countries allow individual nations to keep lower taxes and have relatively fewer rules around that. 

Could you explain that dynamic a little for us?

Do richer countries allow individual nations to keep lower taxes?

Clinton Donnelly: There was a real concern right before globalization in the eighties.  

Starting in the eighties, we had issues with international drug trafficking. We had, people like Ferdinand Marcos in the Philippines, who pretty much alluded his own country and took the proceeds and took them to Swiss and Lichtenstein banks and trusts. 

The creation of anti-money laundering laws through FATF

The international community got together and said, we have to stop this. So they created anti-money laundering laws coordinated through the financial action task force (FATF).  

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the (OECD) are the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development of about 34 countries that did not like tax havens. 

For example, tax havens, like Seychelles and the British Virgin Islands (BVI), believed these little countries were siphoning off a lot of money and bringing no value to their area. So they clamped down on those using the same anti-money laundering laws, and what that ended up doing was it forced people back to the OECD countries that made it a club of the halves.

The OECD countries treat themselves as plus countries. So, that crushed the small island tax haven network. 

But at the same time, in Europe, we have rich countries like Germany and France, and we also have tiny countries, Luxembourg, Netherlands, who have tiny revenue streams. They need to allow them to have more latitude to have incentives or lower tax options to bring business there. 

The EU is excellent about that, but other countries of the world have to fend for themselves. 

This is a massive issue, by which countries compete with each other. There’s massive competition. 

The US used to have some of the highest corporate tax rates.

It was at 35%; I think France was higher. But then, the UK and Ireland slashed their corporate tax rates significantly. The UK slashed down to 20% on a phase method. Ireland brought it down for foreign countries working in Ireland down to 12.5% corporate tax. This is a big incentive and part of why Google, Facebook, and Apple all move their call centers to Ireland. 

So what the US did to change its international competitiveness is they slashed their corporate tax rates down to 21% and made it exceptionally aggressive. So it is designed to bring big companies who might have been in other countries back home to the US. There is a real war going on for multinational corporations’ tax revenues by countries that are lowering their tax rates to bring them in.

So this will only get more competitive, as people in countries start to do that, they’re going to have to fund it by putting more of the tax burden back on the individual. 

In the US, I looked at a pie chart, and individuals pay roughly 80% of all the US taxes to the IRS. The rest of it is corporate taxes. 

The argument would be, if they put a tax on companies that make sure you buy a shirt in Australia, then your shirt will be more expensive because you’re paying the company’s tax, right? 

Company taxes are indirectly taxed back on the individual. As individuals, we can vote with our feet and move just as I talked about with the three-country shuffle and keep our assets in the US. 

We see the same struggle in the US. 

We have some high tax states like California, New York, and because of remote offices and this sort of thing, people are starting to flee from big states like New York and California.

They’re not willing to pay high property taxes, high sales taxes, high-income taxes anymore.

We're in a period of transition where we as individuals have a lot of power to change our life's tax dimension and make sure we're getting as much value as we can out of the money we have to pay.

Stephan Livera: That was an incredible breakdown. Great information there, Clinton. One of the exciting things there is that dynamic that you were teasing out: there’s this kind of competition between different countries, and for some smaller ones, like say the BVI or Vanuatu, part of the way they compete is they have low tax, etc. 

And for some of them, the offshore investment or the citizenship by investment programs that they offer a part of a good part of their taxation is part of their revenue, that’s part of how they kind of make money.

Clinton Donnelly: An interesting country in South America is a country called Panama. It’s still country, but everybody knows that if anything gets unstable, the US will invade it in a heartbeat because of the Panama Canal. 

Now, what happened is Panama has a tax regime where if a company or an individual drives their income from outside of Panama, then it’s not taxed in Panama. Okay. So it’s a true territorial system. 

What’s happened is that multinationals who want to do business all over Latin America set up their headquarters in Panama. They take all their money in Latin America back to Panama, Panama doesn’t tax it because it’s a drive from outside of Panama.

This is just a unique arrangement that has enabled Panama to attract incredible amounts of business because almost all the Latin American countries are unstable Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. 

I mean, it’s a volatile mess there, but Panama has the most reliable banking system in all of Latin America. The problem is it was a bit of a shady tax haven and was blacklisted once. It’s got many issues, but it’s moving to progress and improve things, so I would keep an eye on it. 

If you were an individual living in Panama, you’re not American citizens.

So any other country, they’re not going to tax your income. 

If you’re a remote worker, because you’re getting your income from outside of Panama. It’s a lovely tropical country where they speak Spanish and a bit of English, and it’s got a great airport.

Stephan Livera: Right. And, so I guess the other thing there is, the question of getting residency, citizenship and so on. You might not necessarily need citizenship, but you might need the right to live and work there. 

Clinton Donnelly: It is easy. Go to Panama. You put down money, and you open up a bank account. 

You put $20,000 in the bank account and, you get a lawyer about $3,000. 

They can get you, what’s called a friendly nations visa, and this would be 45 countries that Panama likes. Australia is one of them, you know, all of Europe, pretty much, you get a friendly nation visa. You are now a permanent resident of Panama. 

You need to visit for two weeks every two years. But otherwise, you can set up bank accounts, and you have residency there, and you can travel all the world, still say your Panama citizen, keep your business operating out of Panama. You know, so you’re not going to be taxed cause it comes from outside of Panama. 

Stephan Livera: Yeah. It’s interesting because I’m thinking back through Bitcoin people or people who’ve famously attacked Bitcoin people like Peter Schiff, he’s in Puerto Rico, as I understand.

I think even Eric Vorhees has talked about it and went to. I think, but I’m not sure. Correct me if I’m wrong, but I think he might’ve gone to Panama. But the other point I wanted to raise is everyone’s got their different view on the justice of taxation and AML laws. 

You might be against them, but I think one factor that is potentially playing in favor of the individual.  A typical book a lot of people read is called The Sovereign Individual

And part of that is this idea of going to better countries or going to better jurisdictions for better tax laws or other laws. 

I think most people grow up and have this inertia– I grew up here, so I’m going to live here, and I’m going to die here. But perhaps we’re moving more into a world where people can work remotely. 

They can then start accessing some of these overseas tax planning and overseas tax structuring to improve the level of competition between the different countries. And ideally, keep it a bit lower for the individual. What do you guys think?

Dennis Wohlfarth: Yeah. I think that’s one big part. Clinton also said you have to think about where you want to spend like the next years, right? 

I moved to Zug, Switzerland, to the Crypto Valley or at least what they call it because we started our company there. 

It’s a tax Haven for people from Europe because you can easily move there. It’s just; you have to think about all the consequences, right? 

For example, you’re not allowed to keep a key to your parents’ home when they live in Germany, because you’re just not allowed to have a residence in another country. 

If so, the other country would tax you on your group to income, and there are also the 185 days you have to be there in this other country. 

So you need to be aware of the cultural differences. You need to be aware if you speak a different language. You need to think about the costs of living, especially in Switzerland.

And Switzerland, for example, is entirely different from area to area. So it’s not just, I moved to the border of Switzerland. If you come from France or Italy or Germany, you have different areas, and they are small, like Zug, and have excellent taxation law on crypto because you don’t pay any crypto taxes. 

You just pay a wealth tax at the end of the year. It would be easy for a European citizen to move there. You just have to keep in mind that you kind of give up your home or where you grew up. 

You can move back in the future pretty quickly. It depends on your situation. If you have a family, it’s maybe even harder to move there.

“As Clinton said before, the future of all these taxation laws, especially for crypto, will be another five or ten years until they figure out the correct regulations there.”

- Dennis Wohfarth, Accointing Tweet

My team and I are encouraging everyone to accept these regulations because it also brings grip to the next stage, right? 

It’s not just a bad thing. If new regulations are coming in, you have better guidelines. 

You would know exactly how to behave. And with those guidelines, you can find loopholes to go around these taxes. 

If you don’t have any guidelines, it’s tough to decide what to do, because it’s just not defined yet. Right? That’s a big part to consider for the future.

Stephan Livera: Yeah. Clinton, anything to add?

Clinton Donnelly: I talked to a client, from Serbia, and said he had lived through the time when it was broken up, it became very lawless, and there was no real central government. 

And, the criminal element kind of dominated law and order. So there was a real breakdown. 

And when I was talking to him, he said, “I want to pay taxes! I’ve lived in a country where we didn’t pay taxes, and it was chaos. I want to pay taxes, and I want a stable government.” 

And I thought, wow. It was refreshing because so many people think that even paying a dime to a government or some crime is a value that governments give to you. 

And as you were saying Stephan, we should become shoppers to a certain extent. We can make choices about the tax impacts on our lives. The governments generally like you to stay put in one spot and never move, like everybody who has a hand on you can tax you there. They don’t like you moving around because it’s tougher for them, basically changing your residency.

Tax burdens are outrageous, worldwide and it has to do with the number of services we expect governments to give us.

We want the governments to give us social insurance, that if we get old, they’re taking care of us. 

We want the roads to have no potholes. 

We think that the government ought to do stuff to make things better and regulate and define what it means to be organic, all these sorts of things. Let’s have the government do it.

Every time you say the government ought to, you have to rephrase it and say, I want to pay more taxes so that the government ought to do this.

Governments never shrink themselves, so the only way you can sometimes vote is with your feet and move somewhere else, and the grass isn’t always greener on the other side. 

Suppose you have substantial family ties that you love going visit, you know, the big family on Sunday, and having a pasta dinner. In that case, you know, you’re going to miss that if you take off and go live somewhere else.   

But you might replace it with something more exciting and adventurous in your life. So you have to look at the whole picture. It’s not just the tax issue.

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